Money taken in fines is redistributed in varying ways in different colleges.Some, such as Exeter, put the money recouped towards student hardship funds. Wadham, Mansfield, Pembroke, St. Hugh’s, and Harris Manchester all also put fined money towards student support – although with each college there is often a small amount of money set aside for administration costs.Exeter, for example, feel that, “£30 is deemed as a reasonable administration charge for having to continually chase students to pay their battels.”Other colleges, such as Merton, donate the proceeds of fines towards JCR nominated charities – an approach mirrored by the University’s Proctors who vote at the end of each academic year on a charity to donate to. Often the charity chosen has a connection to students. Colleges such as St. Hilda’s and New put money towards “general academic purposes”.Largely, fines for overdue library fines or other library indiscretions are reinvested into library infrastructure.For example, all of the £7,728 and £4,462 raised through Library fines by Exeter and New Colleges respectively is streamed directly back to the two college’s libraries to assist with library purchases. The Universiy’s policy on reinvesting library fines is similar, fines remain “within the libraries but is not directly allocated to any particular purpose.”[mm-hide-text]%%IMG_ORIGINAL%%9841%%[/mm-hide-text]
To the Editor:On behalf of the Bayonne Housing Authority Homework Assistance Program, I would like to express sincere thanks and gratitude on behalf of each student who received a gift of their choice this holiday season, due to the generosity of the community during this year’s annual toy drive. I would first like to thank Mayor James Davis, the Bayonne City Council members, the Bayonne Housing Authority Board of Commissioners, and Bayonne Housing Authority Executive Director John Mahon for their continued support of the program and the holiday toy drive.I would also like to thank the following individuals and groups for their generous donations: Freeholder Kenneth Kopacz, the Kopacz Family, the Gary LaPalusa Association, the Bayonne Chapter of UNICO National, Christine LaFrance, Danny Boys Pub and their patrons, Bayonne Housing Authority Administration and Staff, Henry Harris Peer Leadership, James Riccio, Jr. & The Riccio Family, Jason Artz, Bob Kachmar, Bayonne Board of Education Central Administration, Café Bello and their patrons, the Irish American League, the Donegal Association, the Shamrock Society of Bayonne, Bayonne High School Administration and Staff, members and friends of Robbins Reef Yacht Club, and numerous family and friends.You all helped bring joy and excitement to the students who attend the B.H.A. Homework Assistance Program this holiday season and every year your generosity is very much appreciated.Best wishes to all of you and your families for a healthy and happy 2019.MICHAEL OLESKYCoordinatorB.H.A. Homework Assistance Program
A “Living Shoreline” is beginning to take shape on Shooting Island in Ocean City with a restoration project. (Photos courtesy City of Ocean City and ACT Engineers) By MADDY VITALEA project to restore Shooting Island, a living shoreline in Ocean City, is not only the longest of its kind in the state, but it is right on schedule with the first phase completed.Mayor Jay Gillian and other officials say the wetlands restoration plan will create coastal resiliency, providing an environment for the wildlife to continue to thrive and to reduce the storm impacts along the bayfront.“The mayor is grateful to the state Department of Environmental Protection, the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for their partnership and financial support in this groundbreaking project,” said Public Information Officer Doug Bergen. “If all goes well, the new living shoreline should provide both a buffer against storms and a habitat for birds and marine life.”Charter Contracting, of Boston, installed 2,700 linear feet of rock sill to protect existing marsh and allow for further development of marsh on the island; and 1,450 linear feet of oyster habitat along the northern and western edges of the island. The oyster “castles” are manmade block-like structures, like Legos, that provide the ideal habitat for shellfish, according to Ocean City officials.The sill functions as protection for the Shooting Island wetlands and will absorb energy from the waves and currents. The oyster habitat blocks were spaced to promote the flow of tidal water between the marsh and bay, officials said.“Everything went really smoothly with the project. The contractor completed it ahead of time and it certainly has met all of our expectations on the beginning of the restoration of the island coming together,” explained Carol Beske, founder of ACT Engineers, the city’s dredging consultant.Beske said many agencies have worked together to make this possible.“We have had full cooperation from various agencies,” Beske said. “I just give a great deal of credit to Ocean City and the mayor and administration for what they have done to tackle this whole dredging issue. They had the foresight to know this is part of solving (storm problems) in their long-range plans. To me, their foresight and commitment has been phenomenal.”While there have been other projects in the state to restore living shorelines, and some are underway, Beske said none are to this level.She noted that it is amazing to see the abundance of wildlife on Shooting Island, which includes birds and even harbor seals. A main part of the plan was to provide a new habitat for birds, marine life and other coastal species.“We’ve even had harbor seals sitting on the rocks sunning themselves and all types of birds,” Beske said. “And the restoration of that island definitely does protect a portion of Ocean City.”The project is creating a buffer from storms on the bayfront and restores wetlands.Since 1978, Shooting Island, which is off Tennessee Avenue and is uninhabited, has seen significant degradation. Its shoreline has receded nearly 60 feet. With the project, more than 150 acres of tidal wetlands will be restored.If there was nothing done, officials said the island would be gone by 2100.Officials noted that the next phases of the restoration project include filling in between the rock sill and the oyster habitats, applying dredge materials and restoring and recreating the wetlands using some dredge materials. A $2.2 million grant from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation allows the work crews to experiment with ways to “create and stabilize wetlands.”The permit was issued to Ocean City in partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, N.J Department of Environmental Protection, U.S. Department of Interior, National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and National Marine Fisheries Service. The first phase of the project was completed in late spring, ahead of schedule and under budget.A harbor seal suns itself on the rocks.
TAGS9/11coronavirusCOVID-19fire departmentfirefightersquarantinedSouth Bend WhatsApp Five South Bend firefighters quarantined, awaiting coronavirus testing By Brooklyne Beatty – March 23, 2020 0 326 Twitter Pinterest Google+ Google+ (Jon Zimney/95.3 MNC) Five South Bend firefighters have been quarantined after interacting with a coronavirus patient last Saturday.The 911 call was unrelated to COVID-19, but the department was informed late last week that the patient has now tested positive for the virus.In response, the department has implemented processes and protocols to prevent exposure, including limiting interaction with patients, wearing full personal protective equipment, and following new protocol when handing off a patient at the hospital.Those who call 911 for unrelated emergencies are asked to notify dispatchers if they are also exhibiting symptoms of COVID-19. Pinterest Facebook CoronavirusIndianaLocalNewsSouth Bend Market Facebook WhatsApp Twitter Previous articleThree more positive COVID-19 cases in Berrien CountyNext articleMichigan logging applications for redistricting panel Brooklyne Beatty
Nanotechnology is booming, and not just in the lab. In recent years, industry has embraced the unique properties of tiny particles in everything from medicine to airplane design to doughnut frosting.Philip Demokritou is an associate professor of aerosol physics and director of the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health’s Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology. Like the vast majority of chemicals in consumer products, emerging nanomaterials rarely receive safety testing, he notes. That’s why he and his colleagues are promoting an approach that incorporates safety testing in design.Demokritou sat down with the Gazette to talk about the aims of the center, its recent work on novel nanoparticles, and the potential benefits of a safer-by-design approach.Q&APhilip DemokritouGAZETTE: Can you define engineered nanoparticles for us?DEMOKRITOU: To put things in perspective, one nanometer is 100,000 times less than the human hair diameter. So it’s very tiny. You put five carbon atoms next to each other and you barely reach the one-nanometer scale.So nanoscale for nanotechnology is defined as the one- to 100-nanometer range. Down in that size range, materials have unique size-dependent properties, different from the properties of the “bulk” material due to the so-called quantum effects, which are surface- rather than volume-driven phenomena. That’s what really makes these so-called nanoscale materials exciting. We do have the tools nowadays to put molecules together and make engineered nanomaterials with unique functional properties that can be used in almost every field of science and applications.GAZETTE: So a small-enough compound will behave differently from larger particles made of the same stuff?DEMOKRITOU: Exactly. It has unique physical, mechanical, electronic, thermodynamic, and optical properties. And that’s good stuff, because we can use them in a gazillion applications.On the other hand, that’s also where the nanotoxicology part comes into play. These materials also have unique biological properties, because nano is also the scale of nature, in terms of biology.They can interact with proteins and other biomolecules and bypass biological barriers more than the bulk materials. They can enter into cells. They can become systemic if you inhale or ingest them. So they behave differently at the molecular, cellular, and organism levels. More importantly, with the dramatic increase of nano-enabled products entering the market every year, human and environmental exposures are inevitable, which raises concerns in terms of the environmental health and safety of such emerging nanomaterials. That is why a new field called nanotoxicology, or nanosafety, has evolved over the last decade or so and focuses on assessing such potential implications.In 2010, we decided to establish a nano-related center, which is unique in the sense that it brought together two communities across Harvard: Scientists who synthesize these unique nanomaterials, and environmental health experts to understand biological and toxicological effects across the exposure-to-disease continuum. We then started actually making some of these engineered nanoparticles in my lab.GAZETTE: We’re talking about engineered nanoparticles and you’re saying business is booming. I think that’s news to people. Are consumers using them every day without knowing?DEMOKRITOU: Yes. There is no labeling system in place.If you go 10 to 15 years back, the cosmetics industry started labeling their products “nano-enabled.” But when they realized that people started worrying about the implications, that labeling disappeared. There are no rules in place that force the industry to label a product as nano-enabled. In other words, they’re responsible to name the chemicals in the product, but they won’t tell you if it’s in the nanoscale or not. They’ll tell you there’s silver in this product, but they won’t tell you it’s nanoscale silver.GAZETTE: What’s the difference? Do we know how silver behaves differently at the nanoscale?DEMOKRITOU: We use silver and gold in lectures all the time, because you can fine-tune their optical properties just by changing the size.I’m sure you’ve seen stained glass in churches. Those are primarily gold nanoparticles. Just by changing the size you can make a gold nanoparticle red. You can make a gold nanoparticle blue, any color you want, just by changing the size. Everything changes when you go down to the nanoscale.From the beginning, we were also intrigued by the potential applications. We started making some nanoparticles in my lab to test their toxicological footprint, as well as using our cellular and animal models. “If you have a laser printer in your office, you’re most likely inhaling engineered nanoparticles released during printing.” GAZETTE: What is the attraction to nano generally?DEMOKRITOU: It enables us to do things better, create new functional materials, and enhance applications. You can make materials stronger but lighter, for example, carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers. We have Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner. It is made out of carbon nanofibers because they’re 1,000 times stronger than steel, but lighter.The reason our phones are getting smaller and smarter is nanoelectronics. The sunscreen we’re using nowadays is translucent, transparent to light, because the particles are getting smaller and they allow light to go through while UV is blocked at the same time. Batteries, that’s another field. The reason we have Tesla and other companies now, that manage to create these powerful, compact, and lighter batteries, is because they switched to nanomaterials. Nanomedicine introduced lifesaving breakthroughs using nanomaterials in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications.GAZETTE: Are there other centers like yours that evaluate nanotoxicology?DEMOKRITOU: Certainly there are centers and groups that are focusing purely on nanotoxicology or nanomaterial synthesis and applications.In our center, we follow a more interdisciplinary approach. We bring the applications and environmental health and safety communities together. Our approach is to integrate exposure and material science, in vitro and in vivo assessment of biologic responses, and nanotoxicology risk assessment to facilitate science-based decision-making to minimize potential environmental health impact. We are using the convening power of Harvard to bring together all stakeholders, including industry, academia, policymakers, and the general public, to maximize innovation and growth of nanotechnology and minimize environmental and public health risks.We live in interesting times, and innovation and technology will only increase exponentially along with our exposures to emerging chemicals, nanomaterials, and the like. In my humble opinion, when it comes to such advanced materials, or any emerging chemicals, we need to change the modus operandi.There are close to 4,000 chemicals entering the market every year in the United States; only 2 to 3 percent of those go through toxicological testing. The rest: You and I are the test animals here. And that’s not good, because there are lots of examples out there where we had to go and clean up the mess 20 years later. And in the meantime, lots of people got sick and died. Asbestos is an example. PCBs is another example.So that’s why by design our nano center brings the two worlds together. We want to test them at the same time we develop nanomaterials. That gives you the opportunity to go back and fine-tune properties and make sure functionality is preserved while toxicological footprint is kept at a minimum. Related The Daily Gazette Sign up for daily emails to get the latest Harvard news. Microscopic particles carry big concerns GAZETTE: Is it safe to say that there are nanomaterials out there that consumers are using that we really don’t know the safety profile of?DEMOKRITOU: Of course. The new motto for many industries is “the nano the better.”Every juice you drink contains nanosilica and other engineered particles. Every doughnut you eat is most likely loaded with titania nanoparticles. All those bright colors you see on the doughnuts are primarily titania nanoparticles.Do you know that your laser printer is nano-enabled, in a sense? We probably published 20 papers on that. If you go back 15 to 20 years, photocopiers and printers were emitting ozone. So when the EPA regulated the ozone levels indoors, the industry needed to change the hardware to eliminate the ozone generation.The ozone was generated because of the way photocopiers and printers worked. The particles in the toner are powders 20 microns in size. The way that the system works is the particles need to be charged and then a photosensitive drum draws a picture and, based on the charge, the particles go and stick on the paper.To create this charge, old technology used to have a corona system in place, which is a needle with high voltage that breaks apart oxygen and creates ions. That charges the particles but creates ozone as well.The industry had to come up with a new technology. They said, “Engineered nanoparticles, especially metallic nanoparticles, have a charge on their own. And they’re tiny. Why don’t we throw these tiny, engineered nanometals and metal oxides in the toner so the toner particles are already charged?”They’ve done that and solved the ozone problem. But they created another problem. We proved that these nanoparticles released from nano-enabled products — in this case toner — are highly bioactive when inhaled and might be deleterious to the lung and beyond. If you have a laser printer in your office, you’re most likely inhaling engineered nanoparticles released during printing.There are a gazillion food-related nano-enabled products. Every pill you take contains nanomaterials. Sunscreens also contain a variety of engineered nanomaterials to effectively block UV radiation. Building materials are nano-enabled nowadays. “There are close to 4,000 chemicals entering the market every year in the United States; only 2 to 3 percent of those go through toxicological testing. The rest: You and I are the test animals here.” Harvard researchers develop technique to measure quantity, risks of engineered nanomaterials delivered to cells
How masks and buildings can be barriers to the coronavirus Related Your building might be making you sick. Joe Allen can help. The Ash Center for Democratic Governance and Innovation sat down with Katharine Robb, a postdoctoral research fellow at the center’s Bloomberg Harvard City Leadership Initiative where she has been conducting research on housing and health in Chelsea, Mass. This densely populated city adjacent to Boston has seen some of the worst COVID-19 infection rates in the state. Robb completed her doctorate in public health degree at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in 2019.While pursuing her doctorate, Robb worked as an Innovation Field Lab fellow in Chelsea, ultimately focusing her dissertation on her work with the field lab, where she developed and implemented a novel social-service referral program within the city’s Inspectional Services Department. The program leverages the unique role of housing inspectors to link at-risk residents with services to prevent problem properties and social and health crises.Q&AKatharine RobbAsh Center: Were you at all surprised that Chelsea has become one of the centers of the COVID-19 outbreak in Massachusetts?Robb: No, it’s not a surprise. We know that diseases of many kinds disproportionately impact poor communities, people of color, and people living in overcrowded conditions. Chelsea has all three of these. Having spent a great deal of time in Chelsea, I know first-hand the strength and vibrancy of its community and culture. But, not only does Chelsea have a population with a lot of risk factors for infection, but because of the density and housing conditions, there are also limitations on people’s ability to reduce their risk from infection.Ash Center: How do housing conditions impact health outcomes in urban environments?Robb: Housing is so much more than physical shelter. It impacts every aspect of our lives, including our health in a really powerful way. It also impacts our security, our personal relationships, our privacy, and access to community resources. Housing related risks can stem from physical aspects of the home environment such as insect infestations that cause asthma attacks, or from financial aspects that result in poor property maintenance and create unsafe conditions in the home. Overcrowded conditions may strain interpersonal relationships or contribute to abuse or mental health problems.Ash Center: Specifically, how have housing conditions in Chelsea possibly exacerbated the spread of the virus? “Housing is so much more than physical shelter. It impacts every aspect of our lives, including our health in a really powerful way.” Chan School’s Allen looks at COVID-19 through healthy-building eyes Robb: Even before the pandemic, homes were not a safe place for many residents in the city. Chelsea is the most densely populated city in Massachusetts, and one of the densest in the country. Many of the homes in Chelsea are two bedrooms or fewer, and contrary to national trends, family size in Chelsea is actually growing — so the housing stock really doesn’t match the needs of the current population in the city.Chelsea is also emblematic of the affordable housing crisis that’s facing many cities where skyrocketing rents and stagnant wages increase the proportion of residents who lack adequate housing. Residents often cope with this by doubling or tripling up with other families and living in some really inhumane conditions such as unfinished basements or closets or porches, often lacking adequate water, sanitation, ventilation or heat. Many are forced to share bathrooms or kitchens with other families or residents, making social distancing and proper sanitary practices difficult if not impossible in some situations. Finally, we’ve seen that many Chelsea residents living in overcrowded or substandard conditions are more likely to experience underlying health conditions due to poverty, reduced access to healthcare and food, and psychological stress — which put them at greater risk of infectionAsh Center: How have past pandemics historically shaped housing policy in cities, and is there a possibility that the crisis we’re in now may spark similar changes in the future?Robb: I think this pandemic highlights how in some communities across the US, families still face many health and social challenges — think poor ventilation, overcrowding, inadequate access to sanitation — that were faced at the end of the 19th century — and are still associated today with higher rates of death and disease. History shows us that epidemics can be a real turning point in the ways that cities address health. One hundred fifty years ago it was epidemics such as cholera or tuberculosis that generated the political will to care about improving conditions among the urban poor. This was because more enfranchised or wealthier classes were also impacted, and this gave rise to publicly financed improvements in drinking water supplies, in sanitation, as well as building and housing codes to improve sanitary and health conditions. Healthy buildings expert Joe Allen from the Chan School of Public Health weighs in on ways to help protect yourself from coronavirus As the 20th century progressed the health conditions changed and we saw dramatic reductions in mortality and morbidity in cities. Over the last 100 years, the wealthy were better able to isolate themselves from unsafe or unsanitary conditions in poor areas of cities. As a consequence, budgets for public health departments shrank, and there was less political will to continue to care about the health conditions among the poor. But pandemics like this really expose so many underlying vulnerabilities and shine a light on the unacceptable disparities within our communities. It’s my hope that the pandemic can really be a turning point once again, and a call for action for greater investment in improving conditions so that members of our community are no longer living without safe and sanitary shelter.This interview has been edited for length and clarity. A five-layered defense for workplace reopening Harvard Chan School researcher illuminates role of air quality in workers’ physical, cognitive health
AMSTERDAM (AP) — Australian police say a suspected Canadian drug baron has been arrested in the Netherlands on an Interpol warrant. The 57-year-old was detained on Friday and is of “significant interest” to Australian and other law enforcement agencies. Australian police say he was targeted as part of an operation that dismantled a global crime syndicate in 2019 that was accused of trading large amounts of illegal drugs and laundering the profits. The Australian police plan to seek his extradition. The suspect’s name was not released by Dutch authorities, in line with the country’s privacy rules, but media widely reported it to be Tse Chi Lop.
In Caracas, experts from 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries are analyzing plans against drug-related money laundering that will be submitted to the member countries of a special OAS commission for the fight against this crime, the Venezuelan Government announced. The experts from the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), attached to the Organization of American States (OAS), are holding their thirty-third meeting to define new plans and strategies against the laundering of drug money. During the meeting, Venezuela assumed the chairmanship of the group for the period 2011-2012. “We have to tweak the group’s mandate so that we can issue model regulations or documents that can be of use to the different member states” in their fight against money laundering, said the group’s new chair, Annalibe Ruiz, who is also head of the anti-money-laundering directorate of the local anti-narcotics police. Delegations from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, the United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela are attending the meeting, in addition to OAS experts. By Dialogo September 29, 2011
This is the first edition of this event, the program of which includes an exhibition of new security solutions by an estimated 150 exhibitors from 14 countries. Ten thousand visitors are expected, including public-safety authorities from Brazil and Latin America, security managers from large corporations, and providers of services and critical infrastructure. On the agenda is a new vision of security, considering the political-economic situation and the contributions of public and corporate initiatives for the evolution of the sector. Simultaneously, the 2nd Security Seminar will take place, with participation by specialists and government and industry representatives who will discuss challenges and trends in the sector. During the event, plenary sessions of the national councils that bring together the authorities in the sector will be held. By Dialogo April 11, 2012 LAAD Security 2012 – Public and Corporate Security International Exhibition is taking place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from April 10 to 12, with the participation of public organizations, firms, and security specialists.
By Taciana Moury/Diálogo August 30, 2017 Brazilian military communications are becoming even more secure. The Brazilian Armed Forces now have a Geostationary Defense and Communications Satellite (SGDC, per its Portuguese acronym). Set in orbit in May, the equipment allows for government and military communications to be made securely and will also expand broadband service offerings in Brazil’s most remote regions. Control of the satellite is the responsibility of the Space Operations Center (COPE, per its Portuguese acronym), a unit that is under the Brazilian Air Force’s (FAB, per its Portuguese acronym) Aerospace Operations Command (COMAE, per its Portuguese acronym). COPE has facilities in Brasilia and Rio de Janeiro, where it monitors all military communications via satellite. The center’s operations are conducted jointly with the Army and Navy through a multidisciplinary team. After entering orbit, the satellite remained under manufacturer control while undergoing acceptance testing. According to FAB Colonel Marcelo Vellozo Magalhães, the commander of COPE, the operations center continuously monitored the entire data stream during the acceptance testing phase. “When COPE activated the secure communications cryptography and the manufacturer no longer had access to the equipment, the satellite began operating exclusively under Brazil’s control, thus ensuring the sovereignty of our communications through the Aerospace Operations Command,” Col. Magalhães noted. The inauguration of these FAB-coordinated activities took place in July by video conference between the authorities at COMAE’s headquarters in Brasilia and Minister of Defense Raul Jungmann, who was in the town of Vilhena in Rondônia (northern Brazil), nearly 2,000 kilometers away. In attendance were FAB General Nivaldo Luiz Rossato, the general commander of Aeronautics, and FAB General Gerson Nogueira Machado de Oliveira, the commander of COMAE at the time. On that occasion, Minister Jungmann said that it was a historic moment for the nation and stressed the satellite’s importance for Brazil’s defense and sovereignty. “We are operating a satellite that is the first to be duly encrypted and under our control. This is not just a military project for national defense and sovereignty. It obviously also represents a big step forward for our autonomy and our independence in terms of foreign media, so that we can move forward with our own communications,” he said. That video conference marked the linking of border patrol Operation Ostium with the SGDC. Col. Magalhães explained that they are also discussing some tests for linking the satellite with command-and-control networks. “All our military operations, such as Operations Ágata and Ostium, use various communications and data networks for their coordination and for their command and control. But operational testing is still being conducted with the SDGC. In this phase, the users’ equipment is being configured and tested for operability with the satellite,” he added. Information security “The security of our satellite monitoring and control operations is ensured by modulation and cryptography techniques,” Col. Magalhães explained, adding that the satellite also has anti-jamming features. “Military communications are also protected by modulation and cryptography techniques,” he said. Another advantage of the SGDC is that it can operate on an X-band frequency, which is a band of the electromagnetic spectrum used for military communications. According to Col. Magalhães, that frequency band is less susceptible to atmospheric or weather conditions, making it ideal for traditional military operations. “The military portion of the SGDC satellite uses this band, and it enjoys viability for its communications at all times in an area that extends from the Antarctic to the North Atlantic,” he added. For Col. Magalhães, the SGDC plays an essential role in strategic military communications that are essential for coordinating operations related to defending Brazilian airspace. “The fact that the satellite is controlled by service members and that it remains within the scope of a military organization guarantees the secrecy and security of our communications. In addition, this equipment will be available and operational at any time, whether in a crisis situation or a conflict,” he said. Geostationary satellite Weighing 5.8 tons and measuring 5 meters high, the SGDF is positioned at a distance of 36,000 kilometers above the Earth’s surface, covering the entire territory of Brazil and the Atlantic Ocean. The satellite has an 18-year operational capacity. The SGDC is the product of a partnership between the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Communications, and represented an investment of approximately $850 million. The equipment was acquired by Telecomunicações Brasileiras, a Brazilian telecommunications company, for use in strategic government communications, and also to expand broadband service offerings throughout the country, especially in the most remote areas. According to information from the Air Force Agency (AFA), the SGDC will expand the military’s capacity to conduct its mission. For example, during joint operations in regions along the nation’s land borders, during rescue operations on the high seas, and also for controlling Brazilian airspace. Gen. Rossato introduced the SGDC’s operational advantages during a public hearing in May at the Chamber of Deputies (Brazil’s lower house of Congress) in Brasilia. According to information from AFA, Gen. Rossato briefed the members of parliament on the successful launching of this first Brazilian satellite and announced that the requirements for a second SGDC are being drafted.